There are always costs and benefits in environmental change and these are unevenly distributed along lines of class, race, ethnicity, gender, and geography (among other axes of difference). The environmental geopolitics of outer space is similarly multi-scale, manifesting itself in contemporary debates on pollution issues such as orbital debris and planetary protection agreements. The cultural, legal, budgetary, and infrastructural footprints experienced in the contemporary space race have measurable environmental footprints on Earth and in outer space. The question of where these footprints fall is arbitrated by larger issues of geopolitical power and vulnerability, which means that human participation in outer space is also a matter of environmental justice.
Abstract: The formulation and development of geopolitical theory have profoundly imprinted the influence of maps. In the history of the development of geopolitics, different map projections not only serve different thinkers' theoretical formulation, but also penetrate into the dynamic revisions of their own theories in different periods. How exactly do map projections participate in the construction of geopolitical theories? Based on existing cartographic research of geopolitics, this article discusses the relationship between map projection and the construction of geopolitical theory by interpreting and communicating the spatial analysis with the discourse analysis in map functions, from these two basic attributes of maps, namely spatiality and textuality. On the one hand, the framework of mental map after a map projection deformation and abstraction provides the spatial support for constructing a geopolitical theory; on the other hand, the map projection gathers abundant layers of textuality through map distortion in complex contexts. Under the intertextualities (complementary narratives) among all layers of textuality in map projection, new map discourse can be generated and infiltrate into the mental map, which promotes the generation of core concepts and the construction of logical relations of geopolitical theory in a figurative way. Considering the influence of Mackinder's map view, in this paper, the explanatory power of the relationship framework is verified through making a perspective analysis from map projections on all stages (1904, 1919, 1943) of the change of Mackinder's Heartland geopolitical thought. This reveals the potential applicability of the analysis framework in other geopolitical theories researches. We are looking forward to the construction of China's geopolitical theory based on the intertextuality of the innovation of map projections in the complex contexts interweaved with the world experiencing a level of change unseen in a century and the strategic goal of achieving national rejuvenation and so on. 2b1af7f3a8